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Microbiology Microbiology: A Systems Approach
Microbiology: A Systems Approach

Microbiology: A Systems Approach Cowan • 6th Edition • 978-1260258998

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Ch. 1 - The Main Themes of Microbiology

Introduction to Microbiology Introduction to Taxonomy Scientific Naming of Organisms Members of the Bacterial World Introduction to Bacteria Introduction to Archaea Introduction to Eukarya Acellular Infectious Agents: Viruses, Viroids & Prions Importance of Microorganisms Scientific Method Experimental Design  Introduction to Spontaneous Generation Francesco Redi's Experiments Needham vs. Spallanzani Pasteur's Experiments on Spontaneous Generation John Tyndall's Experiment History of Spontaneous Generation Summarized

Ch. 2 - The Chemistry of Biology

Atoms- Smallest Unit of Matter  Isotopes Introduction to Chemical Bonding Covalent Bonds Noncovalent Bonds Ionic Bonding Hydrogen Bonding Introduction to Water Properties of Water- Cohesion and Adhesion Properties of Water- Density Properties of Water- Thermal Properties of Water- The Universal Solvent Acids and Bases pH Scale Carbon Functional Groups Introduction to Biomolecules Monomers & Polymers Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acids Lipids

Ch. 3 - Tools of the Laboratory

Introduction to Microscopes Magnification, Resolution, & Contrast Introduction to Light Microscopy Light Microscopy: Bright-Field Microscopes Light Microscopes that Increase Contrast Light Microscopes that Detect Fluorescence Electron Microscopes Reviewing the Different Types of Microscopes Introduction to Staining Simple Staining Differential Staining Other Types of Staining Reviewing the Types of Staining Gram Stain Biofilms Growing a Pure Culture Introduction to Cultivating Microbial Growth Types of Solid Culture Media Plating Methods Introduction to the Types of Culture Media Chemically Defined Media Complex Media Selective Media Differential Media Reducing Media Enrichment Media Reviewing the Types of Culture Media

Ch. 4 - Bacteria and Archaea

Cell Envelope & Biological Membranes Bacterial & Eukaryotic Cell Membranes Archaeal Cell Membranes Types of Membrane Proteins Concentration Gradients and Diffusion Introduction to Membrane Transport Passive vs. Active Transport Osmosis Simple and Facilitated Diffusion Active Transport ABC Transporters Group Translocation Types of Small Molecule Transport Review Endocytosis and Exocytosis Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells Binary Fission Generation Times Bacterial Cell Morphology & Arrangements Overview of Prokaryotic Cell Structure Introduction to Bacterial Cell Walls Gram-Positive Cell Walls Gram-Negative Cell Walls Gram-Positive vs. Gram-Negative Cell Walls The Glycocalyx: Capsules & Slime Layers Introduction to Biofilms Pili Fimbriae & Hami Introduction to Prokaryotic Flagella Prokaryotic Flagellar Structure Prokaryotic Flagellar Movement Proton Motive Force Drives Flagellar Motility Chemotaxis Review of Prokaryotic Surface Structures Prokaryotic Ribosomes Introduction to Bacterial Plasmids Cell Inclusions Endospores Sporulation Germination

Ch. 5 - Eukaryotic Cells and Microorganisms

Mitosis & Meiosis Introduction to Eukaryotic Organelles Endomembrane System: Protein Secretion Endomembrane System: Digestive Organelles Mitochondria & Chloroplasts Endosymbiotic Theory Introduction to the Cytoskeleton Eukaryotic Cilia & Flagella Cell Junctions

Ch. 6 - Viruses and Prions

Introduction to Viruses Introduction to Bacteriophage Infections Bacteriophage: Lytic Phage Infections Bacteriophage: Lysogenic Phage Infections Bacteriophage: Filamentous Phage Infections Plaque Assays Introduction to Animal Virus Infections Animal Viruses: 1. Attachment to the Host Cell Animal Viruses: 2. Entry & Uncoating in the Host Cell Animal Viruses: 3. Synthesis & Replication Animal Viruses: DNA Virus Synthesis & Replication Animal Viruses: RNA Virus Synthesis & Replication Animal Viruses: Antigenic Drift vs. Antigenic Shift Animal Viruses: Reverse-Transcribing Virus Synthesis & Replication Animal Viruses: 4. Assembly Inside Host Cell Animal Viruses: 5. Release from Host Cell Acute vs. Persistent Viral Infections COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Plant Viruses Viroids Prions

Ch. 7 - Microbial Nutrition and Growth

Microbial Growth Curves in a Closed System Temperature Requirements for Microbial Growth Oxygen Requirements for Microbial Growth pH Requirements for Microbial Growth Osmolarity Factors for Microbial Growth Reviewing the Environmental Factors of Microbial Growth Nutritional Factors of Microbial Growth Growth Factors Measuring Growth by Direct Cell Counts Measuring Growth by Plate Counts Measuring Growth by Membrane Filtration Measuring Growth by Biomass

Ch. 8 - Microbial Metabolism

Introduction to Energy Laws of Thermodynamics Chemical Reactions ATP Enzymes Enzyme Activation Energy Enzyme Binding Factors Enzyme Inhibition Introduction to Metabolism Negative & Positive Feedback Redox Reactions Introduction to Aerobic Cellular Respiration Types of Phosphorylation Glycolysis Entner-Doudoroff Pathway Pentose-Phosphate Pathway Pyruvate Oxidation Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Chemiosmosis Review of Aerobic Cellular Respiration Fermentation & Anaerobic Respiration Introduction to Photosynthesis Leaf & Chloroplast Anatomy Electromagnetic Spectrum Pigments of Photosynthesis Stages of Photosynthesis Light Reactions of Photosynthesis Cyclic vs. Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation Calvin Cycle Prokaryotic Photosynthesis

Ch. 9 - Microbial Genetics

The Griffith Experiment The Hershey-Chase Experiment Chargaff's Rules Discovering the Structure of DNA Meselson-Stahl Experiment Introduction to DNA Replication DNA Polymerases Leading & Lagging DNA Strands Steps of DNA Replication DNA Repair Central Dogma Introduction to Transcription Steps of Transcription Transcription Termination in Prokaryotes Eukaryotic RNA Processing and Splicing Introduction to Types of RNA Genetic Code Introduction to Translation Steps of Translation Review of Transcription vs. Translation Prokaryotic Gene Expression Review of Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Gene Expression Introduction to Regulation of Gene Expression Prokaryotic Gene Regulation via Operons The Lac Operon Glucose's Impact on Lac Operon The Trp Operon Review of the Lac Operon & Trp Operon Introduction to Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Eukaryotic Chromatin Modifications Eukaryotic Transcriptional Control Eukaryotic Post-Transcriptional Regulation Post-Translational Modification Eukaryotic Post-Translational Regulation Introduction to Microbial Genetics Introduction to Mutations Methods of Inducing Mutations Prototrophs vs. Auxotrophs Mutant Detection The Ames Test Introduction to DNA Repair DNA Repair Mechanisms Horizontal Gene Transfer Bacterial Transformation Transduction Introduction to Conjugation Conjugation: F Plasmids Conjugation: Hfr & F' Cells Genome Variability CRISPR CAS

Ch. 10 - Genetic Analysis and Genetic Engineering

Introduction to DNA-Based Technology Introduction to DNA Cloning Steps to DNA Cloning Introduction to Polymerase Chain Reaction The Steps of PCR Gel Electrophoresis Southern Blotting DNA Fingerprinting Introduction to DNA Sequencing Dideoxy Sequencing

Ch. 11 - Physical and Chemical Control of Microbes

Introduction to Controlling Microbial Growth Selecting a Method to Control Microbial Growth Physical Methods to Control Microbial Growth Review of Physical Methods to Control Microbial Growth Chemical Methods to Control Microbial Growth Chemicals Used to Control Microbial Growth Liquid Chemicals: Alcohols, Aldehydes, & Biguanides Liquid Chemicals: Halogens Liquid Chemicals: Surface-Active Agents Other Types of Liquid Chemicals Chemical Gases: Ethylene Oxide, Ozone, & Formaldehyde Review of Chemicals Used to Control Microbial Growth Chemical Preservation of Perishable Products

Ch. 13 - Microbe-Human Interactions: Health and Disease

Introduction to Microbiology Symbiotic Relationships The Human Microbiome Characteristics of Infectious Disease Stages of Infectious Disease Progression Koch's Postulates Molecular Koch's Postulates Bacterial Pathogenesis Introduction to Pathogenic Toxins Exotoxins Cause Damage to the Host Endotoxin Causes Damage to the Host Exotoxins vs. Endotoxin Review Immune Response Damage to the Host Introduction to Avoiding Host Defense Mechanisms 1) Hide Within Host Cells 2) Avoiding Phagocytosis 3) Surviving Inside Phagocytic Cells 4) Avoiding Complement System 5) Avoiding Antibodies Viruses Evade the Immune Response

Ch. 14 - Host Defenses I: Overview and Nonspecific Defenses

Introduction to Immunity Introduction to Innate Immunity Introduction to First-Line Defenses Physical Barriers in First-Line Defenses: Skin Physical Barriers in First-Line Defenses: Mucous Membrane First-Line Defenses: Chemical Barriers First-Line Defenses: Normal Microflora Introduction to Cells of the Immune System Cells of the Immune System: Granulocytes Cells of the Immune System: Agranulocytes Introduction to Cell Communication Cell Communication: Surface Receptors & Adhesion Molecules Cell Communication: Cytokines Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) Introduction to the Complement System Activation Pathways of the Complement System Effects of the Complement System Review of the Complement System Phagoctytosis Introduction to Inflammation Steps of the Inflammatory Response Fever Interferon Response Review Map of Innate Immunity

Ch. 15 - Host Defenses II: Specific Immunity and Immunization

Introduction to Adaptive Immunity Antigens Introduction to T Lymphocytes Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules Activation of T Lymphocytes Functions of T Lymphocytes Review of Cytotoxic vs Helper T Cells Introduction to B Lymphocytes Antibodies Classes of Antibodies Outcomes of Antibody Binding to Antigen T Dependent & T Independent Antigens Clonal Selection Antibody Class Switching Affinity Maturation Primary and Secondary Response of Adaptive Immunity Immune Tolerance Regulatory T Cells Natural Killer Cells Review of Adaptive Immunity

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