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Ch. 24 - Principles of DiseaseWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch. 1 - Introduction to Microbiology
Ch. 2 - Disproving Spontaneous Generation
Ch. 3 - Chemical Principles of Microbiology
Ch. 4 - Water
Ch. 5 - Molecules of Microbiology
Ch. 6 - Cell Membrane & Transport
Ch. 7 - Prokaryotic Cell Structures & Functions
Ch. 8 - Eukaryotic Cell Structures & Functions
Ch. 9 - Microscopes
Ch. 10 - Dynamics of Microbial Growth
Ch. 11 - Controlling Microbial Growth
Ch. 12 - Microbial Metabolism
Ch. 13 - Photosynthesis
Ch. 15 - DNA Replication
Ch. 16 - Central Dogma & Gene Regulation
Ch. 17 - Microbial Genetics
Ch. 18 - Biotechnology
Ch. 21 - Viruses, Viroids, & Prions
Ch. 22 - Innate Immunity
Ch. 23 - Adaptive Immunity
Ch. 24 - Principles of Disease
Symbiotic Relationships
The Human Microbiome
Characteristics of Infectious Disease
Stages of Infectious Disease Progression
Koch's Postulates
Molecular Koch's Postulates
Bacterial Pathogenesis
Introduction to Pathogenic Toxins
Exotoxins Cause Damage to the Host
Endotoxin Causes Damage to the Host
Exotoxins vs. Endotoxin Review
Immune Response Damage to the Host
Introduction to Avoiding Host Defense Mechanisms
1) Hide Within Host Cells
2) Avoiding Phagocytosis
3) Surviving Inside Phagocytic Cells
4) Avoiding Complement System
5) Avoiding Antibodies
Viruses Evade the Immune Response

Concept #1: Types of Exotoxins

Practice: The components which make up an exotoxin are:

Practice: Vibrio cholerae is the bacterium which causes the disease cholera. Vibrio cholerae is a toxigenic bacterium, meaning it creates toxins. The toxin created by Vibrio cholerae is and A-B toxin which disrupts the ionic balance of the host’s intestinal cell membranes. This results in vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration in infected individuals which could lead to death. The toxin created by Vibrio cholerae is an A-B toxin and a _________ toxin.

Practice: Even though chemotherapy is used as a treatment for cancers it also causes cellular damage. Chemotherapy drugs possess toxins that attempt to target and destroy rapidly dividing cells, such as tumor cells. The toxins found in chemotherapy drugs are _________.

Concept #2: 1) A-B Toxins

Practice: Anthrax is a serious illness caused by the Bacillus anthracis bacteria. The Bacillus anthracis bacteria create a dangerous toxin composed of three protein parts. Each individual part of the toxin does not cause symptoms of disease. However, when the three parts are combined, the toxin causes disease. Scientists know that one part of the toxin allows attachment to the host cells while the other two parts cause disease. The anthrax toxin is an example of a ____ toxin.  

Practice: Botox is a common, temporary cosmetic treatment. Botox injections use the botulinum toxin created by Clostridium botulinum bacteria to block certain nerves and paralyze muscles of the face to reduce the appearance of facial wrinkles. The botulinum toxin is an example of which type of toxin?

Concept #3: 2) Membrane-Damaging Toxins

Practice: Eisenia fetida is a species of earthworm which creates the lysenin toxin. The toxin defends the worm against infectious bacteria and fungi. The lysenin toxin forms pores in the membranes of pathogens which leads to apoptosis of the pathogens. The lysenin toxin is a _________.

Practice: Toxoid vaccines are vaccines for toxins made by pathogens. Toxoids are weakened versions of a toxin which do not cause disease but allows our immune system to recognize toxins in the future. Toxoid vaccines for toxic phospholipases C are being researched and tested. What would this vaccine protect patients from?

Concept #4: 3) Superantigens

Practice: Which is true about superantigens?

Practice: A superantigen:

Practice: Some individuals infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus have elevated cytokine levels that can lead to acute lung injury, respiratory distress, and even death. The excessive concentrations of cytokines created in response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus is likely: