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# Ions and the Octet Rule (Simplified)

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Sections
The Atom (Simplified)
Subatomic Particles (Simplified)
Isotopes
Ions (Simplified)
Atomic Mass (Simplified)
Atomic Mass (Conceptual)
Periodic Table: Element Symbols
Periodic Table: Classifications
Periodic Table: Group Names
Periodic Table: Representative Elements & Transition Metals
Periodic Table: Elemental Forms (Simplified)
Periodic Table: Phases (Simplified)
Law of Definite Proportions
Atomic Theory
Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment
Wavelength and Frequency (Simplified)
Electromagnetic Spectrum (Simplified)
Bohr Model (Simplified)
Emission Spectrum (Simplified)
Electronic Structure
Electronic Structure: Shells
Electronic Structure: Subshells
Electronic Structure: Orbitals
Electronic Structure: Electron Spin
Electronic Structure: Number of Electrons
The Electron Configuration (Simplified)
Electron Arrangements
The Electron Configuration: Condensed
The Electron Configuration: Exceptions (Simplified)
Ions and the Octet Rule
Ions and the Octet Rule (Simplified)
Valence Electrons of Elements (Simplified)
Lewis Dot Symbols (Simplified)
Periodic Trend: Metallic Character

The Octet Rule states that main-group elements will generally form enough bonds to obtain 8 electrons in their valence shell.

###### The Octet Rule

Concept #1: Octet Rule

Example #1: How many electrons must the sodium atom (Z =11) lose in order to obtain a filled outer shell?

Example #2: Write the electron arrangement for the following ion: Ca2+ (Z = 20)

For a metal cation, first remove electrons from the highest energy level.

Example #3: Write the electron arrangement for the following ion: N3– (Z = 7)

For a non-metal anion, add electrons to the orbital with available space.

Practice: Determine the electron arrangement for the Cl ion.

Practice: Determine the electron arrangement for the Al3+ ion.