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Ch.12 - SolutionsWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch.17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Solutions: Solubility and Intermolecular Forces
Parts per Million (ppm)
Mole Fraction
Solutions: Mass Percent
Types of Aqueous Solutions
Intro to Henry's Law
Henry's Law Calculations
The Colligative Properties
Boiling Point Elevation
Freezing Point Depression
Osmotic Pressure
Vapor Pressure Lowering (Raoult's Law)
Additional Guides
The Freezing Point Depression (IGNORE)

Vapor Pressure is the pressure exerted by a gas at equilibrium with its liquid phase at a specific temperature in a closed system.

Understanding Raoult's Law & Vapor Pressure Lowering

Concept #1: Vapor Pressure Lowering

Example #1: Calculate the vapor pressure (in torr) of a solution containing 53.7 g Cd(NO3)2 (MW: 236.43 g/mol) in 155 g of water at 30.0ºC. The vapor pressure of pure water at this temperature is 131.8 torr.

Practice: How many grams of glucose, C6H12O6, must be added to 515.0 g of water to give a solution with a vapor pressure of 13.2 torr at 20.0ºC? The vapor pressure of pure water at 20.0ºC is 17.5 torr.

Practice: Determine the vapor pressure lowering associated with 1.32 m C6H12O6 solution (MW: 180.156 g/mol) at 25°C. The vapor pressure of pure water at 25°C is 23.8 torr.

Practice: The vapor pressure of water at 100.0ºC is 0.720 atm. Determine the mass percent of iron (II) chloride, FeCl2, needed to reduce its vapor pressure to 0.655 atm. (MW of FeCl2 is 126.756 g/mol)