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Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond TheoryWorksheetSee all chapters
All Chapters
Ch.1 - Intro to General Chemistry
Ch.2 - Atoms & Elements
Ch.3 - Chemical Reactions
BONUS: Lab Techniques and Procedures
BONUS: Mathematical Operations and Functions
Ch.4 - Chemical Quantities & Aqueous Reactions
Ch.5 - Gases
Ch.6 - Thermochemistry
Ch.7 - Quantum Mechanics
Ch.8 - Periodic Properties of the Elements
Ch.9 - Bonding & Molecular Structure
Ch.10 - Molecular Shapes & Valence Bond Theory
Ch.11 - Liquids, Solids & Intermolecular Forces
Ch.12 - Solutions
Ch.13 - Chemical Kinetics
Ch.14 - Chemical Equilibrium
Ch.15 - Acid and Base Equilibrium
Ch.16 - Aqueous Equilibrium
Ch.17 - Chemical Thermodynamics
Ch.18 - Electrochemistry
Ch.19 - Nuclear Chemistry
Ch.20 - Organic Chemistry
Ch.22 - Chemistry of the Nonmetals
Ch.23 - Transition Metals and Coordination Compounds
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
Equatorial and Axial Positions
Electron Geometry
Molecular Geometry
Bond Angles
Molecular Orbital Theory
MO Theory: Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
MO Theory: Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules
MO Theory: Bond Order

How would an s orbital combine with a p orbital to form a covalent bond? The answer is through hybridization where a hybrid oribital is formed. 

Atomic Orbitals vs. Hybrid Orbitals

Concept #1: Understanding Orbital Hybridization

Valence shell atomic orbitals mix to form hybrid orbitals. For an s orbital to bond with a p orbital the central element must first undergo hybridization.

Concept #2: Understanding Hybridized Orbitals 

Example #1: Determine the hybridization of the sulfur atom within SBr4.

Practice: How many of the following molecules have sp3d2 hybridization on the central atom? 

SeCl6                            XeCl4                           IF                              AsCl5

Practice: How many unhybridized orbitals does the beryllium atom possess in BeCl2?

Practice: Draw and determine the hybridization and unhybridized orbitals for the following covalent compound. 

KrBr4                                                                                       Hybridization:    

                                                                                               Unhybridized Orbitals: