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Biology Biology: The Essentials
Biology: The Essentials

Biology: The Essentials Hoefnagels • 4th Edition • 978-1260709636

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Chapter 1: The Scientific Study of Life

Introduction to Biology Characteristics of Life Life's Organizational Hierarchy Natural Selection and Evolution Introduction to Taxonomy Scientific Method Experimental Design

Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life

Atoms- Smallest Unit of Matter Isotopes Introduction to Chemical Bonding Covalent Bonds Noncovalent Bonds Ionic Bonding Hydrogen Bonding Introduction to Water Properties of Water- Cohesion and Adhesion Properties of Water- Density Properties of Water- Thermal Properties of Water- The Universal Solvent Acids and Bases pH Scale Carbon Functional Groups Introduction to Biomolecules Monomers & Polymers Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acids Lipids

Chapter 3: Cells

Microscopes Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells Introduction to Eukaryotic Organelles Endomembrane System: Protein Secretion Endomembrane System: Digestive Organelles Mitochondria & Chloroplasts Endosymbiotic Theory Introduction to the Cytoskeleton Cell Junctions

Chapter 4: The Energy of Life

Introduction to Energy Laws of Thermodynamics Chemical Reactions ATP Enzymes Enzyme Activation Energy Enzyme Binding Factors Enzyme Inhibition Introduction to Metabolism Negative & Positive Feedback Biological Membranes Types of Membrane Proteins Concentration Gradients and Diffusion Introduction to Membrane Transport Passive vs. Active Transport Osmosis Simple and Facilitated Diffusion Active Transport Endocytosis and Exocytosis

Chapter 5: Photosynthesis

Introduction to Photosynthesis Electromagnetic Spectrum Pigments of Photosynthesis Leaf & Chloroplast Anatomy Stages of Photosynthesis Light Reactions of Photosynthesis Calvin Cycle Photorespiration C3, C4 & CAM Plants Review of Photosynthesis

Chapter 6: Respiration and Fermentation

Redox Reactions Introduction to Cellular Respiration Types of Phosphorylation Glycolysis Pyruvate Oxidation Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Chemiosmosis Review of Aerobic Cellular Respiration Fermentation & Anaerobic Respiration

Chapter 7: DNA Structure and Gene Function

The Griffith Experiment The Hershey-Chase Experiment Chargaff's Rules Discovering the Structure of DNA Meselson-Stahl Experiment Introduction to DNA Replication DNA Polymerases Leading & Lagging DNA Strands Steps of DNA Replication DNA Repair Telomeres Central Dogma Introduction to Transcription Steps of Transcription Eukaryotic RNA Processing and Splicing Introduction to Types of RNA Genetic Code Introduction to Translation Steps of Translation Post-Translational Modification Review of Transcription vs. Translation Mutations Introduction to Regulation of Gene Expression Prokaryotic Gene Regulation via Operons The Lac Operon Glucose's Impact on Lac Operon The Trp Operon Review of the Lac Operon & Trp Operon Introduction to Eukaryotic Gene Regulation Eukaryotic Chromatin Modifications Eukaryotic Transcriptional Control Eukaryotic Post-Transcriptional Regulation Eukaryotic Post-Translational Regulation Viruses

Chapter 8: DNA Replication, Binary Fisiion, and Mitosis

Introduction to Cell Division Organization of DNA in the Cell Introduction to the Cell Cycle Interphase Phases of Mitosis Cytokinesis Cell Cycle Regulation Review of the Cell Cycle Cancer

Chapter 9: Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis

Genes & Alleles Homologous Chromosomes Introduction to Meiosis Meiosis I Meiosis II Genetic Variation During Meiosis Mitosis & Meiosis Review Life Cycle of Sexual Reproducers

Chapter 10: Patterns of Inheritance

Introduction to Mendel's Experiments Genotype vs. Phenotype Punnett Squares Mendel's Experiments Mendel's Laws Monohybrid Crosses Test Crosses Dihybrid Crosses Punnett Square Probability Incomplete Dominance vs. Codominance Epistasis Non-Mendelian Genetics Pedigrees Autosomal Inheritance Sex-Linked Inheritance X-Inactivation

Chapter 11: DNA Technology

Introduction to DNA-Based Technology Introduction to DNA Cloning Steps to DNA Cloning Introduction to Polymerase Chain Reaction The Steps of PCR Gel Electrophoresis Southern Blotting DNA Fingerprinting Introduction to DNA Sequencing Dideoxy Sequencing

Chapter 12: Forces of Evolutionary Change

Descent with Modification Hardy-Weinberg Model Genetic Variation

Chapter 13: Evidence of Evolution

History of Life on Earth

Chapter 14: Speciation and Extinction

Species Phylogeny

Chapter 15: Evolution and Diversity of Microbial Life

Prokaryote Cell Structures Prokaryote Reproduction and Gene Exchange Prokaryote Metabolism and Ecology Prokaryote Lineages Protist Cells Protist Life Cycles Protist Lineages Fungi Fungi Reproduction

Chapter 16: Evolution and Diversity of Plants

Land Plants Nonvascular Plants Seedless Vascular Plants Seed Plants

Chapter 17: Evolution and Diversity of Animals

Overview of Animals Porifera and Cnideria Lophotrochozoans Ecdysozoans Echinoderms Noncoelomate Invertebrates Coelomate Invertebrates Chordates Aminotes Primates and Homonids

Chapter 18: Populations

Ecology Introduction to Ecology Biomes Population Ecology

Chapter 19: Communities and Ecosystems

Community Interactions Community Structure Ecosystems

Chapter 20: Preserving Biodiversity

Conservation Biology

Chapter 21: Plant Form and Function

Roots and Shoots Tissues Growth Water Potential Soil and Nutrients Nitrogen Fixation

Chapter 22: Reproduction and Development of Flowering Plants

Plant Development Flowers Seeds Phototropism Tropisms and Hormones Plant Defenses

Chapter 23: Animal Tissues and Organ Systems

Animal Tissues Metabolism and Homeostasis Thermoregulation

Chapter 24: The Nervous System and the Senses

Neurons and Action Potentials Central and Peripheral Nervous System Sensory System

Chapter 25: The Endocrine System

Endocrine System

Chapter 26: The Skeletal and Muscular Systems

Musculoskeletal System

Chapter 27: The Circulatory and Respiratory Systems

Circulatory and Respiratory Anatomy Heart Physiology Gas Exchange Circulatory System Respiratory System

Chapter 28: The Digestive and Urinary Systems

Digestion Blood Sugar Homeostasis Osmoregulation and Excretion

Chapter 29: The Immune System

Immune System Innate Immunity Adaptive Immunity

Chapter 30: Animal Reproduction and Development

Animal Reproduction Animal Development

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