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Biochemistry Essential Biochemistry
Essential Biochemistry

Essential Biochemistry Pratt & Cornely • 4th Edition • 978-1-119-31933-7

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Ch. 1 - The Chemical Basis of Life

What is Biochemistry? Characteristics of Life Abiogenesis Nucleic Acids Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Taxonomy Cell Organelles Endosymbiotic Theory Central Dogma Functional Groups Chemical Bonds Organic Chemistry Entropy Second Law of Thermodynamics Equilibrium Constant Gibbs Free Energy

Ch. 2 - Aqueous Chemistry

Properties of Water Osmosis Hydrophobic Effect Acids and Bases Autoionization of Water pH Acid Dissociation Constant Henderson Hasselbalch Equation Determining Predominate Species Titration Buffer Solution

Ch. 4 - Protein Structure

Amino Acid Groups Amino Acid Three Letter Code Amino Acid One Letter Code Amino Acid Configuration Essential Amino Acids Nonpolar Amino Acids Aromatic Amino Acids Polar Amino Acids Charged Amino Acids How to Memorize Amino Acids Zwitterion Non-Ionizable Vs. Ionizable R-Groups Isoelectric Point Isoelectric Point of Amino Acids with Ionizable R-Groups Titrations of Amino Acids with Non-Ionizable R-Groups Titrations of Amino Acids with Ionizable R-Groups Amino Acids and Henderson-Hasselbalch Beta Turns Tertiary Structure of Protein Protein Motifs and Domains Peptide Bond Denaturation Primary Structure of Protein Anfinsen Experiment Altering Primary Protein Structure Protein Folding Drawing a Peptide Chaperone Proteins Prions Determining Net Charge of a Peptide Isoelectric Point of a Peptide Approximating Protein Mass Peptide Group Ramachandran Plot Atypical Ramachandran Plots Alpha Helix Alpha Helix Pitch and Rise Alpha Helix Hydrogen Bonding Alpha Helix Disruption Beta Strand Beta Sheet Antiparallel and Parallel Beta Sheets Quaternary Structure Simple Vs. Conjugated Proteins Fibrous and Globular Proteins Protein Purification Protein Extraction Differential Centrifugation Salting Out Dialysis Column Chromatography Ion-Exchange Chromatography Anion-Exchange Chromatography Size Exclusion Chromatography Affinity Chromatography Specific Activity HPLC Spectrophotometry Native Gel Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE SDS-PAGE Strategies Isoelectric Focusing 2D-Electrophoresis Diagonal Electrophoresis Mass Spectrometry Mass Spectrum Tandem Mass Spectrometry Peptide Mass Fingerprinting Overview of Direct Protein Sequencing Amino Acid Hydrolysis FDNB Chemical Cleavage of Bonds Peptidases Edman Degradation Edman Degradation Sequenator and Sequencing Data Analysis Edman Degradation Reaction Efficiency Ordering Cleaved Fragments Strategy for Ordering Cleaved Fragments Indirect Protein Sequencing Via Geneomic Analyses

Ch. 6 - How Enzymes Work

Specificity Constant Kcat Calculating Km Calculating Vmax Shifting Lineweaver-Burk Plots Michaelis-Menten vs. Lineweaver-Burk Plots Lineweaver-Burk Plot Michaelis-Menten Equation Michaelis-Menten Assumptions Steady-State Conditions Km Enzyme Vmax Enzyme Initial Velocity Rate Constant Units Reaction Orders Rate Constants and Rate Law Enzyme Kinetics Reaction Rate Enzymes Enzyme-Substrate Complex Lock and Key Vs. Induced Fit Models Optimal Enzyme Conditions Activation Energy Types of Enzymes Cofactor Catalysis Electrostatic and Metal Ion Catalysis Covalent Catalysis

Ch. 7 - Enzyme Kinetics and Inhibition

Enzyme Inhibition Irreversible Inhibition Reversible Inhibition Inhibition Constant Degree of Inhibition Apparent Km and Vmax Inhibition Effects on Reaction Rate Competitive Inhibition Uncompetitive Inhibition Mixed Inhibition Noncompetitive Inhibition Recap of Reversible Inhibition Allosteric Regulation Allosteric Kinetics Allosteric Enzyme Conformations Allosteric Effectors Concerted (MWC) Model Sequential (KNF) Model Negative Feedback Positive Feedback Post Translational Modification Ubiquitination Phosphorylation Zymogens

Ch. 5 - Protein Function

Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Heme Prosthetic Group Skeletal Muscle Contraction Hemoglobin Cooperativity Hill Equation Antibody ELISA Hill Plot Hemoglobin Binding in Tissues & Lungs Hemoglobin Carbonation & Protonation Bohr Effect BPG Regulation of Hemoglobin Fetal Hemoglobin Sickle Cell Anemia Chymotrypsin Chymotrypsin's Catalytic Mechanism Glycogen Phosphorylase Liver vs Muscle Glycogen Phosphorylase Introduction to Protein-Ligand Interactions Protein-Ligand Equilibrium Constants Protein-Ligand Fractional Saturation Motor Proteins Myoglobin vs. Hemoglobin

Ch. 11 - Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Stereochemistry of Monosaccharides Cyclic Monosaccharides Monosaccharide Configurations Common Monosaccharides Reducing Sugars Tests Derivatives of Monosaccharides Peptidoglycan Reducing Sugars Hemiacetal vs. Hemiketal Anomer Glycosidic Bond Mutarotation Disaccharides Pyranose Conformations Starch Cellulose Polysaccharide Chitin Glycoconjugates Lectins Glycogen

Ch. 8 - Lipids and Membranes

Lipids Fatty Acids Fatty Acid Nomenclature Omega-3 Fatty Acids Triacylglycerols Glycerophospholipids Sphingolipids Sphingophospholipids Sphingoglycolipids Sphingolipid Recap Waxes Eicosanoids Isoprenoids Steroids Steroid Hormones Lipid Vitamins Comprehensive Final Lipid Map Biological Membranes Physical Properties of Biological Membranes Types of Membrane Proteins Integral Membrane Proteins Peripheral Membrane Proteins Lipid-Linked Membrane Proteins

Ch. 9 - Membrane Transport

Biological Membrane Transport Passive vs. Active Transport Passive Membrane Transport Facilitated Diffusion Erythrocyte Facilitated Transporter Models Membrane Transport of Ions Primary Active Membrane Transport Sodium-Potassium Ion Pump SERCA: Calcium Ion Pump ABC Transporters Secondary Active Membrane Transport Glucose Active Symporter Model Endocytosis & Exocytosis Neurotransmitter Release Summary of Membrane Transport Thermodynamics of Membrane Diffusion: Uncharged Molecule Thermodynamics of Membrane Diffusion: Charged Ion

Ch. 10 Signaling

Introduction to Biosignaling G protein-Coupled Receptors Stimulatory Adenylate Cyclase GPCR Signaling cAMP & PKA Inhibitory Adenylate Cyclase GPCR Signaling Drugs & Toxins Affecting GPCR Signaling Recap of Adenylate Cyclase GPCR Signaling Phosphoinositide GPCR Signaling PSP Secondary Messengers & PKC Recap of Phosphoinositide Signaling Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Insulin Insulin Signaling on Glucose Metabolism Recap Of Insulin Signaling in Glucose Metabolism Insulin Signaling as a Growth Factor Recap of Insulin Signaling As A Growth Factor Recap of Insulin Signaling Jak-Stat Signaling Lipid Hormone Signaling Summary of Biosignaling Signaling Defects & Cancer